Acoustic parameters of P. discolor vocalisations, auditory brainstem
responses, and data analysis programs for Lattenkamp et al., 2021, “The
vocal development of the pale spear-nosed bat is dependent on auditory
vocalisations directory provides data in four CSV files:
adult_calls.csv: Acoustic call parameters of the
vocalisations recorded from six bats, three of which were deafened
after the first recording session. In
pup_calls.csv, these bats
were up to half a year old; in
adult_calls.csv, the same individuals
were 2 years old. The juvenile recordings were acquired with pairs of
bats: In each session, one (deafened or normal-hearing) juvenile was
paired with its (always normal-hearing) mother. The adult recordings
were acquired from groups of two or three bats such that within each
recording session, all were either deafened or of normal hearing.
pup_calls.csv includes the vocalisations from the juvenile bats’
respective mothers which were placed in the recording chamber with
their offspring in some of the sessions. These data have not been
analysed further by the authors.
adult_sessions.csv: Metadata for the recording
Acoustic call parameters
Each row of
*_calls.csv corresponds to one extracted vocalisation from
one bat. The columns are:
session_id: ID of the recording session in which this vocalisation
occurred, for lookup in the corresponding
call_id: Sequence number of the vocalisation within the recording
session. The pairs (
call_id) are unique within each
start_sample: Sample index in the microphone buffer where the
extracted vocalisation started.
start_time: Absolute time in Central European (Summer) Time at which
the extracted vocalisation started. Can be calculated from
start_sample and the metadata in
*_sessions.csv, based on the
sampling rate of 192 kHz.
pup_calls.csv only): Identifier of the animal which
emitted the vocalisation. This can be determined by comparing levels
in the microphone array in the recording chamber, as the position of
the bats within the chamber was known and fixed. This column is
adult_calls.csv, where the recording setup did not
facilitate this analysis.
pup_calls.csv only): Identifier of the animal which was
in the recording chamber with the calling bat, but did not emit the
vocalisation. Missing in
adult_calls.csv, where this information is
pup_calls.csv only): 1 if the calling bat was
deafened, 0 otherwise. Note that in
pup_calls.csv, the first
session of each juvenile–mother pairing was recorded before deafening,
calling_bat_deaf is 1 even in those sessions.
adult_calls.csv only): The string “hearing” or “deaf”,
reflecting the group that all individuals in the recording session
pup_calls.csv only): 1 if this vocalisation
occurred in the first session of a juvenile (before any deafening), 0
pup_calls.csv only): 1 if the calling bat was
a mother, 0 otherwise.
pup_calls.csv only): Difference between the
root-mean-square vocalisation levels of the microphones closer to one
bat vs. the microphones closer to the other bat. Used to determine
other_bat in sessions with juveniles.
call_rms (in dB): Root-mean-square sound pressure of the
vocalisation at the microphone were it was loudest, relative to an
arbitrary reference which was constant across sessions in
adult_calls.csv, but not the same in both.
call_duration (in s): Duration of the vocalisation.
mean_aperiodicity: Aperiodicity value extracted with the YIN
algorithm for fundamental frequency estimation.
Hz): Mean, minimum, maximum, initial and final fundamental frequencies
of the vocalisation, respectively, as estimated with the YIN
spectral_centroid (in Hz): The center of mass of the frequency
spectrum of the vocalisation.
pup_sessions.csv contains the session IDs (
session_id), start times
in Central European (Summer) Time (
start_time), the IDs of the two
individuals which were placed in the recording chamber together in each
whether a recording was the first of a juvenile.
is structured similarly, but replaces the two
animalX columns with
group, which is either
hearing, and does not contain
The individuals referred to in the data files were:
b2, born on 2017/01/26, never deafened.
b3, born on 2017/01/29, deafened after the first recording session.
b4, born on 2017/01/30, never deafened.
b5, born on 2017/02/02, deafened after the first recording session.
b7, born on 2017/02/08, never deafened.
b8, born on 2017/02/08, deafened after the first recording session.
mp, the mothers of these six bats.
scripts contains the Python script which was used to create the
figures and tables included in the publication, and the R script which
was used to conduct the statistical analysis.
scripts_for_reference is of documentary nature and contains the MATLAB
and Python code which was used to extract the acoustic parameters and
generate the CSV files from the raw microphone data (which is not
included in full in this repository for reasons of space, but see the
section below). The YIN implementation used by some of the MATLAB
scripts is available from http://audition.ens.fr/adc/sw/yin.zip (de
Cheveigné & Kawahara, JASA 111:1917:1930, 2002, doi:10.1121/1.1458024).
Exemplary raw data
A sample of raw data files is included in this dataset. Specifically,
18 exemplary recording sessions (including data from all six juvenile
bats) are provided as 2-channel, 192 kHz, 24-bit PCM audio data. For
more efficient storage, these have been compressed using a lossless
codec and are provided in FLAC containers in the
vocalisations/pup_recordings directory. The filename schema is
SSS corresponds to the
BB to the
animal2 fields of
The first channel in each file was recorded with a microphone closer to
AA bat, while the microphone associated with the second channel
was closer to the
Auditory brainstem responses
abr_analysis_results.mat file in the
ABR directory is a MATLAB
data file with three variables:
dates: Recording dates of each ABR measurement sessions, formatted
as YYYYMMDD strings.
bats: Identity of the animal in each ABR measurement session. Note
that the first (earliest) recording for each bat was acquired before
allCONFI: A structure array, indexed on ABR measurement session
number and containing three matrices, namely
frequencies, the frequencies of the stimulation tone pips in Hz,
levels, the tested sound levels in dB, and
confidences, a confidence value for whether the tone pip specified
by frequency and level evoked an auditory brainstem response, based
on a bootstrap analysis.
resultTHRES: A structure array, indexed on ABR measurement session
number and containing two matrices, namely
uniqueFrequencies, the unique frequencies of the stimulation tone
pips in Hz, and
bootstrapThresholds, the lowest sound level for the corresponding
frequency for which an auditory brainstem response was obtained with
a confidence value of 0.95 or greater, or NaN if there is no such
abr_data_analysis.m, provided for reference, is the MATLAB script by
which these data were extracted from the raw ABR measurements.
abr_data_plot.m was used to generate the supplementary ABR audiometry